Donechchyna is a historical and geographical region in the east of Ukraine located in the basin of the Siverskyi Donets River. It borders Russia. This region was sparsely populated during the Middle Ages, and active settlement began here during the Kozak period in the middle of the 17th century. The core of the Donetsk coal basin lies on the territory of Donechchyna. Therefore, at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, thanks to the free flow of Western European capital and the construction of a railway network, Donechchyna gradually became an industrial hub. Many immigrants came here looking for work. The key cities of the region are Donetsk and Luhansk. Nowadays, part of this region is often called ‘Donbas,’ a geographic and economic name correlated with the Donetsk coal basin, not the authentic historical name. Part of this region is temporarily occupied by the Russian forces.